Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Creating CountriesÃ¢â¬â¢ Healthcare Systems Question: Global Fund in the ongoing past suspended the subsidizing to Uganda government refering to net money related misappropriation particularly by Ministry of wellbeing authorities. As a monetary expert, recognize and talk about the practices and approaches that could have prompted this money related misfortune and recommend both interior and outer controls that ought to be set up to limit the reoccurrence of such situations. Presentation Creating countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ human services frameworks are frequently financed by the donorsÃ¢â¬â¢ gives notwithstanding open assets from the legislative spending plans. In any case, sometimes, these assets might be botched and this could prompt overwhelming money related misfortunes thus denying its recipients. The fumble of those assets may take various structures: squandering, fake misappropriation or theft (The Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria). In this article, we survey the instance of Uganda where The Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2005 suspended the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidizing following an arrival of a review report that demonstrated gross fumble of assets that should bolster the administration of Uganda in its endeavors to handle AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Kapiriri Martin, 2006). The practices and arrangements that could have prompted this blunder and misappropriation are distinguished and talked about along with the control measures, both inside and outside, that ought to be attempted to forestall such money related redirection later on. 2. Practices and approaches that could have prompted budgetary botch The issue of monetary assets fumble is by all accounts across the board in creating nations as well as in created ones (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1997). A few deficient practices and arrangements are allegedly associated with the event of this issue. 2. a. Non-existing clear money related standards and guidelines/none consistence to monetary standards and guidelines The absence of clear standards and guidelines to give direction to those associated with the administration of monetary assets can make a route for them to blunder the assets that they should oversee. Mulling over the instance of Uganda, the absence of clear standards and guidelines on how assets would have been utilized perhaps made a money related administrative tumult that encouraged the individuals who were in the places of assets the executives, at each degree of authoritative stepping stool, to abuse or abuse them. Then again, budgetary standards and guidelines may have been set up however presumably the supervisory group, at various levels, was not consistent with them. 2. b. Absence of straightforwardness in regulatory chain of command, jobs and duties Vague authoritative and detailing structure, hazy jobs and obligations among individuals from different groups engaged with reserves the executives may likewise have made administrative issue which prompted absence of monetary responsibility. 2. c. Poor correspondence Poor correspondence among individuals from various groups may likewise have been a key factor in reserves money related administration disappointment. Conceivably, groups didn't share key venture archives about assets the board for audits before being discharged as legitimate reports. Further, they probably won't have coordination gatherings in which they ought to have examined money related issues with key partners in the execution of the undertakings. 2. d. Administrative inadequacy and incompetent budgetary/bookkeeper officials Inadequacy in the administration of assets and actualizing the arranged exercises may likewise have prompted the above money related misfortune. Budgetary techniques probably won't have been watched, this may have been the consequences of awkward chiefs combined with incompetent money related officials and bookkeepers. Further, as indicated by Global FundÃ¢â¬â¢s 2009 Office of the Inspector General report on Lessons gained from the nation reviews and audits attempted, UgandaÃ¢â¬â¢s case, Principle RecipientÃ¢â¬â¢ the executives of Sub-Recipient was poor as was appeared by confirmations in the report and this was one of the issues that the award was suspended. Expressing a similar source, there were poor inner controls at various levels either at Principle Recipient level or at Sub Recipient level as was prove by the report. For instance, some measure of cash evaluated at 4,939,497 US dollars were not represented, sufficient supporting archives for a few exchanges were missing, work plan and financial plans were not dwelling place by which brought about a few costs not identified with the automatic spending plan and work plan. What's more, records identified with the costs like books of record were not appropriately kept. There were likewise instances of unsupported costs and when supporting reports were discovered, they were really fake. It is accounted for that proficient monetary administration requires flawless budgetary and reviewing apparatuses. Inadequacy in budgetary oversight and control systems prompts money related bungle like preoccupation or misappropriation of assets (Mobegi et al, 2012). 2. e. Absence of dynamic association of some key partners As per Kapiriri and Martins (2006), one of the announced potential reasons for fumble of Global Fund concedes in Uganda was low degrees of common society interest. As indicated by Global FundÃ¢â¬â¢s prerequisites for award qualification, the interest of different partners in the dynamic is of principal significance. Be that as it may, in Uganda, it was accounted for that piece of key partners, including common society, who should be spoken to in Country Coordinating Mechanisms were not either included or were deficient with regards to the ability to give significant data sources (Kapiriri Martins (2006). 3. Interior and outside controls that ought to be set up to limit the reoccurrence of such situations It is expressed that there is one regular thing in all organizations either in broad daylight or private organizations: Ã¢â¬Å"To be effective, they should control their operationsÃ¢â¬ . This implies employing the opportune individuals, pay them the perfect measure of compensations, arrange and get the correct items and administrations, and so on (Libby et al, 2009). To accomplish this, it is imperative to set up and follow explicit techniques and strategies which depict how the business ought to be run. These particular systems and arrangements are controls which can be either inner or outside. This hypothesis is applied to the case being talked about. 3.1. Interior controls Interior controls are characterized as set of strategies an association sets up so as to secure the burglary of its benefits, guarantee the bookkeeping data is dependable, support powerful and proficient tasks, and discover that relevant laws, guidelines and codes of morals are agreed to (Libby et al, 2009). For the instance of Uganda, given the weaknesses that were distinguished, inner control systems ought to be improved and set to target them. The inside measures would include: Normal consistence reviews: these reviews would learn that the particular techniques, rules or guidelines set out by Global Fund and as portrayed in award consent to guarantee the great administration of awards are seen at each degree of the administration. Normal operational reviews: these reviews would concentrate every single working methodology at all administration levels so as to quantify their exhibition as far as viability and proficiency. As per Hayes et al (2005), operational reviews are not just restricted to monetary issues, they may likewise put more accentuation on different regions of the association ; structure, working methodologies the same or different regions where assessment is required. Normal reviews of budget summaries: these reviews would examine the fiscal summaries to guarantee that they are exact and as per set standards. Including partners in dynamic procedure and upgraded correspondence: The association of partners and improved dynamic procedure concerning the usage of Global Fund projects could have been a foundation in the anticipation of awards fumble. It is contended that if real and reasonable dynamic procedure were utilized, the suspension of awards could have been deflected (Kapiriri Martins (2006). Given that the poor correspondence between individuals from Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) was refered to among the reasons for award bungle in Uganda, upgraded correspondence inside CCM and with different partners would be similarly significant in forestalling such gross monetary misfortune. 3.2. Outside controls To limit open doors for awards blunder later on, outer control components ought to likewise be improved. These include: Worldwide Fund should direct normal and opportune reviews and audits to guarantee that the set rules for the administration of its awards are watched. Free examiners ought to be delegated and lead reviews on various degrees of awards the executives. It is suggested by the Global FundÃ¢â¬â¢ Office of the reviewer general that the outer review reports ought to be submitted to Global Fund not later than a half year after the period to be evaluated ( Global Fund, 2009). Worldwide Fund should refresh its rules with respect to the administration of awards to fill the holes when they are recognized. 4. End Legitimate Global Fund awards the executives is vital in battling against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria whose mortality and bleakness rates are still inadmissibly high in creating nations. Administration of Global Fund-bolstered nations have the order to guarantee that the awards are utilized as per the set rules and the understandings marked among them and the Global Fund. Therefore, this will keep away from awards bungle or theft cases and subsequently diminish mortality and dismalness rates because of the previously mentioned sicknesses.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Work Relation Management Haggling Laws Covering Public Employees The establishment of rules allowing open area shared exchange in the U.S states needs consistency because of the abberations in wants and political objectives of the various states. This implies in states where laborers can appreciate aggregate understandings, they despite everything use legislative issues and blended types of routine representation.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Labor Relation Management explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, a few states set extreme standards against the associations and doesn't remember them officially. What's more, different states additionally boycott exchanges, strikes, and any type of interventions prompting restricting agreements with workers (Slater, 2004) Impasse Resolution Procedures Regularly organization the executives and association pioneers may neglect to agree on contract conditions coming about into an impasse. This improvement requires outsider inclusion to encourage goals of the two partyÃ¢â¬â¢s absence of concordance. Intercession is a technique of settling these divergences where the outsider will in general accomplish intentional accord among associations and bosses (Riccucci, 2006). Intervention turns into the last advance in settling lines involving accommodation to an outsider any agitated questions for extreme goals. The technique normally discovers application in modern settings. Businesses likewise use association shops methodology to deal with stalemates (Riccucci, 2006). This involves managers tolerating to keep up association workforce just on its finance and may enlist non-association staff given that they consent to join the laborers association inside a particular period. There is mollification strategy where an outsider behaviors contest goals through casual intends to attempt to address the issues. Open Employees Right to Strike Public employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s option to strike does is superfluous since the ope n common help framework exists to address their complaints. The laborers opportunity to strike ought to be prohibited or compelled. This is on the grounds that open workers benefit administrations, which are vital to the prosperity of the network. Formally dressed representatives are not permitted at all to picket.Advertising Looking for article on business financial aspects? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, a few workers get the opportunity to hit yet with a guarantee that the outcomes of their activity won't result into issues influencing the open prosperity. The administration benefits different methods for settling debates including assertion (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). Open Employees Right to Interest Submission for Dispute Resolution Public representatives ought to submit consideration question to extreme and required assertions as opposed to holding a legitimately obtained strike request. The significance of this is the workers can have a chance to attempt settlement. Lawful strike may prompt more issues and loss of time and benefits for the organization. Furthermore, lawful strikes may prompt exploitation of different workers who might be released. Intervention may give upgraded results since considerably after strikes association should haggle with the businesses for better arrangements. A chance to accomplish a similar end coming corresponding with striking, the laborers need to picked mediation. Purposes behind Slow Development of Labor Unions in Latin American Countries The worker's organizations in Latin America clearly grows gradually than in the U.S. purposes behind this situation may incorporate the pace of work, which decreases in numerous segments. This outcomes to organizations releasing specialists or neglecting to employ individuals. The low number of workforce has affected unionization level in the Latin America (Inter-American Development Bank, 2003). Likewise, most y oung people on work in the nations with little training have a contrary mindfulness on the significance of associations. The adolescents subsequently neglect to join the associations along these lines causing the moderate advancement of the associations because of low participation. The compensation profited to laborers in the Latin America is additionally clearly low, making most specialists to incline toward fulfilling their necessities than giving to the unions.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Labor Relation Management explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Actually, this has exacerbated the issues of association advancement, which requires colossal accounts to run solid association activities (Inter-American Development Bank, 2003). Moreover, most nations in Latin America with practically equivalent economy have various unionization rates and administrative measures. At long last, political angles including suppression and wrecking addition ally have huge effect on the speed of unionization in Latin America. Laborer Participation in Western Europe Worker cooperation is a type of laborers portrayal in the organizations, which occur when representatives partake legitimately or by implication in dynamic in their work environments. The ascent of laborers interest in Western Europe came about because of issues including reaction to strikes (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). The laborers intrigue deception during aggregate haggling by association pioneers came about into certain representatives partaking in strikes obviously, as exchanges never qualified into tending to interests. The laborers fought over poor work conditions, methodological adjustments, and cognizance in compensation. The laborers were assuming liability in directing occupation settings and dismissing employerÃ¢â¬â¢s request to oversee work puts after strikes (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). This kept on guaranteeing that representatives oversaw settling on cho ices at work puts through portrayals. The reaction of the businesses after strikes and representatives assuming liability involved better arrangements and consenting to laborers requests of organization portrayals and work committees. To support the cultural request, orders came up expanding the specialists of associations contrasted with those of businesses and making stable imperative aggregate dealing (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). Highlights of Japanese Labor Relation Systems Japanese work organization relations go through opposite blueprint where the enterprise turns into a paternal unit and care for its faithful representatives. This framework is known as big business associations. The nearby working affinity between the workforce and partnership reinforces the structures for specialist investment and conciliation.Advertising Searching for article on business financial aspects? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More Venture associations need authority along these lines aggregate haggling occurs in the expansive organization through very much blended methodology (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). Laborers complaints are fathomed when organization make gigantic continues showing a decentralized haggling advance. The Japanese framework likewise observes the dealing settlements accomplished in the mother businesses. Compensation holes are everyday among chiefs and incompetent staff. The model of position gets huge and vows always work and when business comes up short, workforce are moved other line organizations. The business utilizes systems to avoid releasing workforce. At long last, settling debates happen through the procedure of shop levels (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). The Japanese structures are not transferable to the U.S frameworks since they need work environment equity. The venture associations controlled by organization the board deny the associations autonomy. The strategy for compromise o f debates through shop levels isn't pertinent in the U.S. moreover, the position approach might be deplorable to the U.S work relations since it is ridiculous to keep workforce in any event, during downturns (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). Transnational Collective Bargaining The progression of aggregate bartering power in new business markets requires a couple of components to be satisfied (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). The transnational firm should join the new markets work associations as a first essential for aggregate bartering. This empowers the organizations to deal with the unification ensuring laborers in those business sectors. The work force selected into the enterprise likewise need to shape an association to use in aggregate bartering. The organization should likewise comply with the national work relations guidelines in the new markets before dealing can happen viably. Organizations likewise need to introduce its proposition on how it expects to secure laborers (Holley, Kenneth Roger, 2008). This empowers the bargainers to have an outline of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s method of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities must agree to work guideline rehearses in the new market including enlistment of laborers, planning of installment for work, and laborers premium insurances. Canada Labor Relation System The Canadian work rules have comparable segments as the U.S. after Canada received all the work relations declarations from the Wagner Act. Be that as it may, Canada has created work sanctioning with two extraordinary highlights. The highlights transferable to the U.S work laws remember partition of expert for the constitution among administrative and the local governments (Estreicher, 2011). This profits total order over the business relationship to the districts. Moreover, government law additionally maintains a strategic distance from expectation of territorial principles. Government organization has full position contained in the const itution to follow up on work debate worries more than barely any specialists in enterprises inside its locale (Estreicher, 2011). Furthermore, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s governing body structure of organization is likewise transferable. This is the place a head administrator under the government organization and local chief keen on modifying makes certain of achieving famous mass for passing bills. This guarantees conceivable authorization of questionable orders required
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
Will the pie be bitter or sweet While I may lack Bens ability to speak to the heart, Matts wisdom, Yans vocabulous wit, and Annas inspirational eloquence, I can offer you a byte (or a few) from my bottomless cache of labyrinthine analogies, inappropriately timed humor, and meme pictures. There will ultimately be a binary outcome to the decision you receive from MIT, and the odds are heavily weighted against one. I dont know which envelope youll find in the mailbox on Monday. But I can tell you that it wont change who you are. Regardless of whether you go to MIT or elsewhere, your intrinsic drive and talent are the real players at work. To borrow Barney Stinsons catchphrase, the ability to make the impossible possimpible lies within you. source: encyclopedia dramatica So dont ever let anything get you down enough to stop riffing on that quadruple-necked guitar, analyzing brainwaves, building fuel cells, pushing gastronomy to new heights, designing bridges, or whatever it is you do. Theres a whole new world full of opportunities about to open up to you, wherever you end up. Best of luck to you all in admissions, yes, but more importantly, in life.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4289 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Case study Did you like this example? Part 1: Management Style Description and feelings This essay aims to reflect on my experience when working with a group of seven students tasked to critically analyse a case study and develop a group presentation. The Gibbs (1988) model of reflection will be used to discuss and analyse the lessons gained from my experience. At the start of our group meeting, a leader was selected and helped the group in planning and implementing the task. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Work book for sh6000 leadership and management in professional contexts" essay for you Create order However, my experience with the group was marked with difficulties and challenges. In the first stages of our group formation, or the norming stage, we had difficulties meeting as a group due to differences in university schedule. During the meetings, some of the members chose not to participate while others were more demanding and tried to dominate the discussions. The leader tried to create some sense of order in our first meetings and demonstrated the authoritarian leadership style. Throughout our team meetings, some of the members were absent, while others who were present continued to depend on the more dominant members to accomplish the tasks. I was frustrated in the beginning of our meetings and felt that we could have been successful in our presentation if we managed to work more effectively. Our team presentation was not what I expected. I was disappointed with our overall team performance. Discussion and Analysis Management is described as a process where leaders govern and make decision-making within an organisation (Bach and Ellis, 2011). This also involves planning of tasks, organising work, staffing, directing activities and controlling (Belbin, 2010). The main aim of management is for managers to influence or encourage team members to accomplish a task (Belbin, 2010). On reflection, my team leader demonstrated the authoritarian leadership style. This type of leadership is described as one where the leader provides the direction of the team and gives specific instructions and directives on how to achieve the team goal (Daly et al., 2015). An authoritarian leader also supervises the activities of the subordinates and strongly discourages members to validate or question his or her directives (Bach and Elllis, 2011). This type of leadership is appropriate in workplaces where there is a highly-structured setting with routine operations (Bishop, 2009). Autocratic leadership is also favourabl e for activities that are simple and of shorter duration (Marquis and Huston, 2012). On evaluation of my experience in the team, we had very little interaction and cohesion during the first few stages of the team working. According to TuckmanÃ¢â¬â¢s model of team development, there are four stages of group formation (Clark et al., 2007). These include the following: forming, norming, storming and performing. Our lack of cohesion and difficulties in conducting team meetings may reflect the first stage of group formation, which is the establishing stage. In this this step, Clark et al. (2007) has explained that team members are still beginning to form their team roles and tend to be polite and diplomatic. At this stage, a team leader was chosen, who in turn reflected the authoritarian leadership style. Since most team members were reluctant to accept a task, our leader decided to assign team roles and ensured that each team member would attend the team meetings. The leader also s upervised the entire group. On reflection, the authoritarian leadership style was appropriate in the first few stages of our team working since this ensured that tardiness and absenteeism were prevented (Belbin, 2010). Further, the authoritarian leadership style was also appropriate since our assigned task was not complex and was of shorter duration (Bishop, 2009). Our group leader was able to make follow-ups on our assigned task. However, as we progressed towards the second stage, which is the storming stage, conflicts soon arose. There were members who tended to dominate the discussion and did not agree with our leader on our assigned team roles and how the case study should be presented. Although Goodman and Clemow (2010) argue that conflicts in teams are natural and may not always have a negative impact on the function and development of the team, in my experience, the conflicts had negative impact on our team development. Members who disagreed with our team leader on how the case study should be presented chose not to participate in our succeeding meeting and role-playing. Since the authoritarian leadership style was adopted, our team leader did not consider the team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestions. Morgan et al. (2015) reiterate that conflicts could help in the development of a team if each team member acknowledges the differences of the team members and learn to adjust to their individual roles. On reflection, most of my team members chose not to adjust to our individual differences. In turn, this created a discordant team, which also reflected on our final presentation. I felt that our presentation was chaotic and reflected poorly on our role as team members. On consideration, our team would have benefitted with the transformational leadership style. This type of leadership encourages members to actively participate in decision-making and is associated with achievement of goals and objectives (Bach and Ellis, 2010). Conclusion The authoritarian leadership style was not the most appropriate style in managing our team since this failed to encourage team members to participate in decision-making. This type of leadership is also not applicable in actual healthcare settings since patient-centred care is promoted and team working and participation highly encouraged. Action Plan When managing a team in the future, I will ensure that I am aware of my own team role. Conflicts should be used to develop and not destroy teams. I will also adopt a leadership style that allows teams members to actively participate in decision-making. Specifically, I will develop the transformational leadership style since this ensures that all members have opportunities to be actively involved and valued during achievement of a task (Bishop, 2009). References: Bach, S. Ellis, P. (2011) Leadership, Management and Team Working in Nursing. Exeter: Learning Matters. Belbin, R. (2010) Management of teams: why they succeed or fall. London: Butterworth-Heinemann. Bishop. V. (2009) Leadership for nursing and allied healthcare professionals. Open University Press: Milton Keynes. Clark, P., Cott, C. Drinka, T. (2007) Ã¢â¬ËTheory and practice in interprofessional ethics: a framework for understanding ethical issues in health care teamsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(6), pp. 591-603. Daly, J., Speedy, S. Jackson, D. (2015) Leadership and Nursing. Contemporary Perspectives. 2nd ed. Chatswood: Elsevier. Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Oxford: Further Educational Unit, Oxford Polytechnic. Goodman, B. Clemow, R. (2010) Nursing and collaborative practice: A guide to interprofessional learning and working. Exeter: Learning Matters, Ltd. Marquis. B. Huston. C. (2012) Leadership and management tools for the new nurse. A case study approach. Lippincott: Philadelphia. Morgan, S., Pullon, S. McKinlaey, E. (2015) Ã¢â¬ËObservation of interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care teams: An integrative literature reviewÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Nursing Studies, doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015 03.008 [Online]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25862411 (Accessed: 15 May 2015). Part 2: Leadership, Management and Change Description and Feelings In our team meetings, the concept of change management surfaced since our team leader struggled in influencing team members to assume different team roles. I also realised that I used to complete tasks individually and not as a team. Although I was not the team leader, I also have to learn how to reflect an appropriate leadership style that will be used in future team working. During our team meetings, I was frustrated since we were accomplishing little, but in the end, I felt that I have developed my ability to work in a team. Discussion and Analysis Change is described as a transition that involves movement from the present state of an organisation to a desired, future state (Marquis and Huston, 2012). Changes often occur in healthcare settings and require change management. During the role-play and team meetings, collaborative team working was encouraged to achieve the goals of the team. This represented a change in how I accomplish tasks. From completing assigned tasks individually, I have to learn how to complete tasks as a group. Apart from changes on how to complete tasks, there was also a suggested change on leadership style from authoritarian to the transformational leadership style. On evaluation, change management was necessary in our group since this could have addressed the factors that caused our poor performance and increased the factors that would lead to a successful group performance. Practising change management is crucial since this would help prepare myself in my future role as a registered nurse and as a nurse leader. At least three theories have been proposed in managing change. These include the Plan, Do, Study, Act cycle (PDSA), KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s Model and LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s change model (Bach and Ellis, 2010; Appelbaum et al., 2012; Reed and Card, 2016). The PDSA cycle is often used in the NHS and allows nurse leaders and other healthcare practitioners to create a plan on how to implement a change while the Ã¢â¬ËdoÃ¢â¬â¢ stage constitutes the actual performance of the plan. In the third or Ã¢â¬ËstudyÃ¢â¬â¢ phase, nurse leaders and team members analyse the performance and whether this needs to be enhanced or changed (Reed and Card, 2016). In the Ã¢â¬ËactÃ¢â¬â¢ phase, the proposed changes in the action plan and performance are implemented. The entire process is then repeated until change has been integrated within an organisation. A critique of the PDSA is the difficulty in repeating this cycle, with Reed and Card (2016) noting that only 20% of healthcare groups using PDSA actually repeat the cycle. The applicability of the PDSA is limited with some healthcare settings not benefitting from this type of change management (Taylor et al., 2013). Meanwhile, the Kotter Model of change adopts the top-down approach and is often used in corporate settings (Appelbaum et al., 2012). It is difficult to use this model of change in actual healthcare settings since the NHS encourages all team members and patients to actively participate in planning and implementation of a change initiative (NHS Leadership Academy, 2011). However, a reflection of my own group would show that the Kotter Model of change was demonstrated as our team leader exercised the authoritarian leadership style. The change came from the leader and trickled down to the team members. Finally, the LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s model of change proposes three stages of change: unfreezing, change and refreezing (Gopee and Galloway, 2013). This model is often used in healthcare settings since it takes into account the factors that enable or deter change in actual practice. Force-field analysis is done and factors that enable change are increased while factors that deter change are reduced (Gopee and Galloway, 2013). On reflection, employing this type of change management is crucial in my future role as a registered nurse leading a multidisciplinary team. In the NHS, it is recognised that there are several factors that deter or promote change in practise. For instance, the perception that a proposed change initiative only increases paperwork could deter the uptake of change in practice (Bach and Ellis, 2011). This perception is supported in literature with the Royal College of Nursing (2013) reporting that nurses spend an average of 2.5 million hours per week completing clerical tasks. Hence, I have to be aware of factors that deter or enable change. On reflection, the autocratic leadership style, coupled with the top-down approach to change did not lead to a successful performance of my gr oup. The LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s model of change would have been more appropriate in helping my team members accept their individual roles and in changing their own way of completing tasks. This model would have helped our team leader investigate the factors that lead to poor attendance to our team meetings and the team membersÃ¢â¬â¢ refusal to resolve conflicts. Conclusion Effective leadership and change management are crucial when implementing a change initiative and in completing group tasks. Using the LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s model of change would have helped the team leader identify the factors that enable and deter change. Successful use of this model would lead to achievement of the goals of the team. Action Plan I will develop my leadership skills and abilities to carry out LewinÃ¢â¬â¢s change model. I will find opportunities to practice change management skills in my own healthcare setting and report regularly to my mentor and colleagues on my progress. I will ask feedback from my mentor and colleagues if I have achieved leadership and change management skills. References: Appelbaum, S., Habashy, S., Malo, J. Shafiz, H. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËBack to the future: revisiting KotterÃ¢â¬â¢s 1996 change modelÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Development, 31(8), pp. 764-782. Bach, S. Ellis, P. (2011) Leadership, Management and Team Working in Nursing. Exeter: Learning Matters. Gopee, N. Galloway, J. (2013) Leadership and Management in Healthcare. 2nd ed. London: Sage. Marquis. B. Huston. C. (2012) Leadership and management tools for the new nurse. A case study approach. Lippincott: Philadelphia. NHS Leadership Academy (2011) Clinical Leadership Competency Framework. Coventry: NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Reed, J. Card, A. (2016) Ã¢â¬ËThe problem with Plan-do-study-act cyclesÃ¢â¬â¢, British Medical Journal Quality and Safety, 25(3), pp. 147-152. Royal College of Nursing (2013) Nurses spend 2.5 million hours a week on paperwork- RCN Survey [Online]. Available at: https://www2.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/press_releases/uk/cries_unheard_-_nurses_still_told_not_to_raise_concerns (Accessed: 10 May, 2017). Taylor, M., McNicholas, C., Nicolay, C., Darzi, A., Bell, D. Reed, J. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËSystematic review of the application of the plan-do-study-act method to improve quality in healthcareÃ¢â¬â¢, British Medical Journal Quality and Safety, doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2013-001862. Part 3: Leadership, Management and Decision Making Description and Feelings In our group work, our team leader did not make a decision to identify the factors that deterred participants from resolving conflicts and adjusting to team roles. There was also no decision to reflect on why team members were reluctant to accept the assigned tasks and the reasons for poor attendance to the team meetings. I felt that these non-decisions heavily influenced our team performance. As a group, we made the erroneous conclusion that our team leader can handle all the required tasks. This group conclusion might have also contributed to our failed group presentation. During our meetings, I was anxious and apprehensive that we were not accomplishing our tasks with the given time frame. Discussion and Analysis The indecision to identify factors that deterred the group from participating in meetings and accepting tasks had a negative impact on our team performance. The ability to make decisions is crucial when completing tasks as a student nurse and in preparation for my role as a registered nurse or a nurse leader. Marriner-Tomey (2009) has argued that decision-making is crucial in healthcare organisations and within teams. In actual healthcare settings, decisions are made constantly and range from decision on whether to admit a patient to decisions on which interventions to use for a specific healthcare condition. These decisions are influenced by legislations, policies, leadership styles and the practice of patient-centred care (NHS Leadership Academy, 2011). On analysis, it is crucial to make decisions within groups. However, it is cautioned that collective decisions might reflect Ã¢â¬ËgroupthinkÃ¢â¬â¢ and lead to failure instead of success (Marriner-Tomey, 2009). The theory of gr oupthink is described as faulty decision made by a group that represents deterioration in reality testing, mental efficiency and moral judgment (Wilcox, 2010). Groups who demonstrate groupthink often do so without realising the impact of their decisions on other groups and in the process, ignore alternatives or actions (Cooke and Young, 2002). It is important to note that groupthink often occurs when members have similar background, when rules for decision-making are not clear and when members do not consider the opinions of others (Wilcox, 2010). In my experience, we were not able to make a decision or demonstrate groupthink despite the similarities of our background. I felt that our lack of cohesion prevented us from also making faulty decisions, which are common when a team Ã¢â¬ËgroupthinksÃ¢â¬â¢. An analysis of our group revealed that we were not able to examine the power relations within the group. Power relations could have an impact on who make the decisions and whethe r these decisions are followed (Bach and Ellis, 2010). Power is described according to who has the formal authority to make decisions for the group and according to who has access to resources (McDonald et al., 2012). Power is also described according to who has less ability to control ideas (McDonald et al., 2012). Ã In teams, there may be power imbalance especially when professional systems, social and cultural factors reinforce these imbalances (Martin-Rodriguez et al., 2005). This power imbalance may be more evident in hospital settings where medical dominance is seen. For example, medical doctors have traditionally retained their independence and professional autonomy and status when collaborating with other groups of healthcare workers (Hudson, 2002). This may create power imbalance as doctors tend to have more power in decision-making compared to the rest of the group. This is in contrast with what is often seen in community healthcare settings where each member of a health care team tends to share power and make decisions according to what is best for the patient (Hudson, 2002). Meanwhile, Weir-Hughes (2011) asserts that in order for a therapeutic relationship to develop, there is a need to consider the power relationships between healthcare practitioners and patients. It is suggested that power may be used negatively (i.e. through coercion and force) or positively (i.e. through encouragement and empowerment). Ã On analysis, my ability to understand power relations through my experiences in team working will be essential when caring for actual patients. In our team, power was used negatively since our team leader had to force our team members to accept assignments. However, I realised that in actual settings, it is important to encourage and empower patients and my colleagues to improve patient care. It has been shown that patient empowerment tends to improve the quality of care and patient outcomes (Sullivan and Garland, 2010). On analysis, ther e was power imbalance in our group since the team leader made all the decisions and the top-down approach to change was followed. Conclusion Making decisions is crucial in team working and when caring for patients. However, the ability to make decisions would depend on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s power. Those with more access to resources and power have greater ability to influence decisions. In healthcare settings, it is crucial to use power positively and empower patients and other members of the healthcare team to make decisions. Positive use of power is also important in preventing Ã¢â¬ËgroupthinkÃ¢â¬â¢, a phenomenon that tends to result to negative consequences for the group. Action Plan When faced with a similar situation in the future, I will ensure that I actively participate in decision-making. However, I need to empower others and myself to make good decisions. Empowerment is necessary to prevent power imbalance. I will continue to engage in training on how to practice effective leadership and management skills in order to empower others to actively engage in decision-making. References: Bach, S. Ellis, P. (2011) Leadership, Management and Team Working in Nursing. Exeter: Learning Matters. Cooke, M. Young A. (2002) Managing and Implementing Decisions in Healthcare. London: Healthcare Balliere Tindall/RCN. Marriner-Tomey (2009) Guide to Nursing Management and Leadership. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier. Martin-Rodriguez, L., Beaulieu, M., DÃ¢â¬â¢Amour, D. Ferrada-Videla, M. (2005) Ã¢â¬ËThe determinants of successful collaboration: a review of theoretical and empirical studiesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of International Care, 19(2), pp. 132-147. McDonald, J., Jayasuriya, R. Harris, M. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËThe influence of power dynamics and trust on multidisciplinary collaboration: a qualitative case study of type 2 diabetes mellitusÃ¢â¬â¢, BMC Health Services Research, 12(63). Doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-63. NHS Leadership Academy (2011) Clinical Leadership Competency Framework. Coventry: NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Sullivan E., Garland G. (2010)Ã Practical Leadership and Management in Nursing. Pearson Education, Harlow. Wilcox, C. (2010) Groupthink: An impediment to success. USA: Xlibris Corporation. Part 4: Reflection on Development of Skill Description and Feelings I participated in a second group activity where I was chosen as the leader. In the second group, I was able to practice leadership skills such as effective communication, motivation, change management and integrity. During one of our discussions, I assigned a group member to search for evidence-based interventions for a specific healthcare condition. Following some research, my team member decided to use the case of a real patient to explain the interventions. However, she identified the name of the patient and the context of her care, including the names of the nurses who were involved in her care. I talked to my colleague privately after our discussion and informed her of the NMC (2015) code of conduct on patient autonomy and the need to observe the privacy of the patient. I asked her to use a pseudonym instead when discussing the case of a patient. My colleague accepted my suggestion and protected the identity of the patient during succeeding discussions. On reflection, I felt t hat my decision to inform my colleague on how to discuss patient care was based on the ethics principles of patient autonomy. Discussion and Analysis From my participation in teams/groups throughout the module, I was able to develop effective communication skills. Specifically, I learned how to listen and show compassion to my colleagues and my patients during placement when they converse with me. Kourkouta and Papathanasiou (2014) have emphasised that effective communication skills is crucial in healthcare settings and when working in teams. These communication skills include recognising both verbal and non-verbal messages (Johnston, 2013). Patients who feel that their nurses are listening intently tend to report higher patient satisfaction with the care they receive (Kourkouta and Papathanasiou, 2014). Effective communication skills are also necessary in resolving conflicts in teams and understanding the perspectives of others (Craig and Moore, 2015). In nursing teams or when working with patients, it is recognised that conflicts in ideas also occur. Hence, the ability to communicate effectively and resolve conflicts will be n ecessary in preparing myself in my future role as a registered nurse (Craig and Moore, 2015). Apart from effective communication, I also learned how to motivate my fellow team members. Motivation is crucial in team working since this would help team members to complete tasks. In my experience with my first group, team motivation was not practiced. In contrast, my second team was able to use motivation to help team members accept and carry out tasks. I realised that the main difference was the support that my team members received in the succeeding group. Craig and Moore (2015) state that team support is critical in team working since the absence of support could create dissatisfaction and loss of motivation. In addition to the skills on motivation, I also saw the importance of change management in our team. In my first group, change management was not practised. Managing change is critical in healthcare practice. Thorpe (2015) has stated that planned change, which is described as purposeful, requires collaborative effort and the presence of a change agent. The NMC (2015) has emphasised that nurses must deliver quality care that is based on evidence, suggesting that nurses have to continually update their skills and practice. This also means that changes in practice have to be made. However, in practice, implementing change is challenging. It is suggested that almost 70% of change projects do not succeed (Mitchell, 2013). In my experience with the group, I also realised the necessity of recognising factors that influence or deter change. Mitchell (2013) suggests that advances in science, shortages of the nursing workforce, an ageing population, the need to increase patient satisfaction and rising cost of treatment all influence change. Inappropriate leadership, poor communication and under-motivated staff also deter the uptake of change in practice (OÃ¢â¬â¢Neal and Manley, 2007). In my future practice, I have to identify factors that promote change in p ractice. On reflection, I was not able to promote change in our first group. I could have assisted the team leader in my first group in analysing the factors that deter my colleagues from accepting their assigned tasks. Integrity was also practiced in the succeeding groups that I was involved in. Specifically, power was not misused as all team members in these groups had equal chances to participate in decision-making. In addition, the team leader and group members exercised honesty and transparency in the decisions made. Finally, ethics in decision-making was observed. For instance, all personal information of patients discussed during case studies was not mentioned and patient autonomy was observed. The NMC (2015) has reiterated the importance of protecting the privacy and autonomy of the patients. Conclusion Practising effective leadership skills and ethical decision-making are important when working as teams and in providing quality care to the patients. Inability to work effectively could result to poor performance, which in turn could affect the quality of care that my future patients will receive. Developing these leadership skills early in my undergraduate years would help prepare me in my role as a registered nurse. Action Plan As part of my action plan, I will continue to engage in training on how to develop effective communication skills. Specifically, I will refine my skills on how to show empathy when listening to my patients and colleagues. The ability to demonstrate empathy is crucial since this would help my patients feel that they matter to the team (Fowler, 2015). References: Craig. M. Moore. A. (2015) Ã¢â¬ËProviding support for teams in difficultyÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã Nursing Times.Ã 111(16), pp. 21 23. Fowler. J. (2015) Ã¢â¬ËWhat makes a good leader?Ã¢â¬â¢,Ã British Journal of Nursing, 24(11), pp. 598 599. Johnston, B. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËPatient satisfaction and its discontentsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of the American Medical Association, 173(22), pp. 2025-2026. Kourkouta, L. Papathanasiou, I. (2014) Ã¢â¬ËCommunication in nursing practiceÃ¢â¬â¢, Materia Socio Medica, 26(1), pp. 65-67. Mitchell, G. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËSelecting the best theory to implementing planned changeÃ¢â¬â¢, Nursing Management, 20(1), pp. 32-37. Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2015) The Code: Professional Standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwives [Online]. Available from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/revised-new-nmc-code.pdf (Accessed: 12 May, 2015). OÃ¢â¬â¢Neal, H. Manley, K. (2007) Ã¢â¬ËAction planning: making change happen in clinical practiceÃ¢â¬â¢, Nursing Standard, 21(35), pp. 35-39. Thorpe. R. (2015) Ã¢â¬ËPlanning a change project in mental health nursingÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã Nursing Standard, 30(1), pp. 38 44.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The early nineteen hundreds were a very bad time to be alive if you were a woman. The disrespect and expectations of women were unbelievable by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards. However, if these expectations were to drive a woman mad, that woman would be in for an even bigger ride than before. Writer Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s life was unfortunate enough to receive the short end of the stick. Driven to depression, Gilman was appointed to the rest cure. A cure that she later found out was the exact opposite of what anyone in her situation needed. A cure in which after Gilman was able to survive, was poised to banish it and rid the world of this cure, while at the same time, putting the state of women in society under a microscope. This is how Gilman, using her own experiences, successfully contributed the protest of the rest cure, marriage and the place of women in society of her time period. The rest cure was a sentence to complete isolation from daily life for women who were suffering depression. Thinking that the mind was like a muscle, doctors thought that depression was just a damaged muscle that needed to not be used until it felt better. GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with the rest cure contributed greatly to the writing of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã¢â¬ A short story about a wife who was submitted to the rest cure by her husband, who was also a doctor. The starts off with the wife slightly depressed, and ends with her having gone completely mad. Having gone through the actual treatment gave herShow MoreRelatedA Critical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish 102 Esposito, Carmine. A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a famous social worker and a leading author of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s relating to views of women s rights and her demands for economic and social reform of gender inequities are very famous for the foundations of American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In critics Gilman ignored by people of color in the United StatesRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper, By Harriet Beecher Stowe1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdomination through their literary work. The Yellow Wallpaper is a direct reflection of Charlotte Perkins Gilman and her political view on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, both mental and physical. In order to have a better understanding of The Yellow Wallpaper, it is imperative to understand the life of Charlotte Perkins Gilman. In 1860, Gilman borned as Charlotte Anna Perkins in Hartford, Connecticut. Her father, Frederick Beecher Perkins abandoned the family when she was only an infant. She surrounded herself by influentialRead MoreAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Analysis of the Short Story The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Originally published in January 1892 issue of New England Magazine. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s short story The Yellow Wallpaper was personal to her own struggles with anxiety and depression after the birth of her daughter with her first husband and S. Weir Mitchell s resting cure treatment she received. The Yellow Wallpaper describes, from the patients point of view, the fall into madness of a woman who is creativelyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Yellow Wall Paper1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the face, knocks you down, and tramples upon you. It is like a bad dream.Ã¢â¬ (Knight 175) Charlotte Perkins Gilman was born in Hartford, Connecticut. Early in her life her parents divorced, so her father could remarry.(Wladaver) Despite family problems, she loved an intellectual environment. She studied art at the Rhode Island School of Design, where she met her first husband.Ã¢â¬ ( Wladaver) During her life she suffered from and was diagnosed with varieties of depression disorders. She lived in anRead MoreYellow Wallpaper1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSvetlana Kryzhanovskaya Prof. Grajeda ENC 3014-MidTerm Paper March 12, 2012 Structuralism amp; Feminist Theory Ã¢â¬ËThe Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Charlotte Gilman can be affectively analyzed from two schools of thought structuralism and feminist theory. Though structuralistsÃ¢â¬â¢ deny the work of literature any connection to its author (it must be what it is, no underlying meaning) feminist theory must first and foremost be understood in its historical framework. By the turn of the century,Read MoreVoices Of The Woman Beyond The Pattern1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesYellow Wallpaper, written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1892, is at first glance the story of a woman driven to madness in a desperate attempt to escape the strict confines placed on her by the treatment regime of the day. More than that though, Gilman has created an alter ego to give voice to her own experiences and frustrations with the societal constraints imposed on women at the time of its publishing. This tale of disempowerment and the subjugation of one woman s wants and needs, is in factRead MoreAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDestiny Banks Mrs. H. Myers ENGL 1002-63639 15 February 2017 Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Life during the 1800s for a woman was rather distressing. Society had essentially designated them the role of being a housekeeper and bearing children. They had little to no voice on how they lived their daily lives. Men decided everything for them. To clash with society s conventional views is a challenging thing to do; however, Charlotte Perkins Gilman does an excellent job fighting that battle by writingRead More Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCritical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a detailed account of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s battle with depression and mental illness. GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s state of mental illness and delusion is portrayed in this narrative essay. Through her account of this debilitating illness, the reader is able to relate her behavior and thoughts to that of an insane patient in an asylum. She exhibits the same typeRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a semi- autobiography by author Charlotte Perkins Gilman who wrote it after going through a severe postpartum depression. Gilman became involved in feminist activities and her writing made her a major figure in the women s movement. Books such as Ã¢â¬Å"Women and Economics,Ã¢â¬ written in 1898, are proof of her importance as a feminist. Here she states that women who learn to be economically independent can then create equality between men and women. She wrote other books such asRead More Oppression of Women in Chopins Story of an Hour and Gilmans Yellow Wallpaper 1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesYellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman share the same view of the subordinate position of women in the late 1800s. Both stories demonstrate the devastating effects on the mind and body that result from an intelligent person living with and accepting the imposed will of another. This essay will attempt to make their themes apparent by examining a brief summery of their stories and relating them to their personal histories. It will reveal this theme further through analysis of setting, visual
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Investor Ratios There are various ratios that are designed to help investors who hold shares in a company to assess the returns on their investment. These are: Dividend per Share The dividend per share ratio relates the dividends pertaining to an accounting period to the amount of shares in issue during the period. The ratio is given as follows: Dividend per share = Dividends pertaining to a period Number of shares in issue The ratio provides an indication of the cash return a shareholder receives from holding shares in a company. We will write a custom essay sample on Investor Ratio Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although it is a useful measure, it must be remembered that the dividend received will usually only represent a partial measure of the return to an investor. Dividends are usually only a portion of the earnings generated by the firm and available to shareholders. A business may decide to plough back some of its earnings back into the business in order to achieve future growth. These ploughed back profits belong to the shareholders and should in principle increase the value of the shares. Thus w h e n assessing the total return to an investor we must look at both the dividends received and any movement in the share price. The dividend per share for Alexis Ltd is given as follows: Page 1 of 5 Dividends per share can vary considerably between companies. A number of factors will influence the amount that a company is willing or able to issue in the form of dividends to shareholders. These factors include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ The profit available for distribution to investors The future expenditure commitments of the company The expectations of shareholders concerning the level of dividend payment The cash available for dividend distribution Comparing the dividends per share between companies is not always useful as there may be differences between the nominal value of the shares issued. It may be more useful to monitor the trend in dividends per share over a period of time. Dividend Yield Ratio This ratio relates the cash return from a share to its current market value and is given as follows: Dividend Yield Ratio = Dividend per Share Market Value of a Share * 100 1 The ratio for Alexis pic is given as follows: Page 2 of 5 In essence this ratio measures the real rate of return on a share. Investors can compare the returns from a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares to the returns that could be earned by investing either in another company or by investing in another form of investment. Dividend Cover Dividend cover (for ordinary shares) looks at how many time a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s profits (after interest, lax and preference dividends) cover the ordinary dividends. Dividend Cover = Profit after interest, tax and Pref Share Dividends Ordinary Share Dividends For Alexis plc this ratio is calculated as follows: Interpretation: Alexis plc profits covers ordinary dividends 3. 96times. Dividend cover is calculated using the profit after interest and tax figure because banks, government and preference shareholders have a preferential claim on the profits of the firm. This ratio is of particular interest to ordinary shareholders. Earnings per share The earnings per share relateÃ¢â¬â¢s the earnings generated by the company during a period and available to shareholders to the number or snares in issue. For ordinary shareholders the amount available will be net profit after interest, tax and preference dividends because banks, the government and preference shareholders have a preferential claim on the profits of the firm. Page 3 of 5 Earnings per share = Earnings available to ordinary shareholders Number of ordinary- shares in issue For Alexis plc this ratio is calculated as follows: The EPS is regarded by many investment analysts as a fundamental measure of share performance. Tracking the EPS over time can help assess the investment potential of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s shares. Care must be taken when comparing EPS from different firms as capital structures differ from one firm to the next. Price Earnings (P/E) R a t i o The price earnings ratio relates the market value of a share to the earnings per share. It is calculated a s follows: P/E Ratio = Market value per share Earnings per Share The P/E Ratio for Alexis is calculated as follows: Page 4 of 5 The ratio reveals that the capital value of the share is 9. 4 times higher than its current level of earnings. The ratio is essence is a measure of market confidence in the future of the company. A high P/E ratio means that relative to profits the price of the share is quite high. Why would this be the case? The higher the P/E ratio the greater the confidence in the future earning power of the company i. e. lthough current earnings are low investors expect them to increase in the future and therefore investors are prepared to pay a high price for the share in relation to the current earnings of the share. A low P/E ratio means that the share price is quite low compared to earnings Ã¢â¬â this implies a pessimistic view of the future. Nobody will be willing to pay a high price for a share in a company that has unexciting trading prospects . Because the P/E ratio gives a guide as to market confidence in a share it can therefore be helpful when comparing different companies although P/E ratios per sector will vary. Page 5 of 5 How to cite Investor Ratio Analysis, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Taxation Law for Clothing Business Purchase. Answer: The owners of clothing business purchase many products from the manufacturers and whole sellers so that they can sell these clothes to the customers in the market. They deal with more than one retailers and shops. There administrative work includes the service related to customer and maintaining the stock of the company. The income earns by an individual either from providing services or for continuing any business is assessable to tax under section 6-5 of the ITAA 1997 as an ordinary income. The section 6-20 of the ITAA 1997 states that certain exemptions are available for the person, which he can claim while calculating his total income. In the given case, the company Tom ltd started its business in Australia. The nature of the business is to sell clothes on retail basis to its customers. The company Tom Ltd seeks an advice based on ATO rulings and recent case laws for tax implication. According to Australian Law individual who resides in the country can claim an exemption on the starting amount of $6,000 under the head tax-free threshold. The section 8-1 of the ITAA 1997 states that a person can claim deduction for the amount spent on dividend or interest prescribed by the act. Particulars Cost of Goods sold Bonus Bad debt Legal fees Dividend received Income tax paid Issue dividend to shareholders Gross total income Reason (Opening stock + purchases-closing stock) Expenses Loss Expenses Income Expenses Expenses Amount [(120,000+180,000)-160,000] $10,000 $15,000 $30,000 $35,000 $15,000 $280,000 Amount $140,000 Exempted ($15,000) ($30,000) $35,000 ($15,000) $280,000 ($165,000) The taxable income is computed under section 4-15 of the ITAA 1997 and since the company is earning a loss during the year so the company does not require paying tax on the loss. Hence, the company Tom Ltd is not eligible to pay tax during the year. After analyzing the whole case it was found that the company met with a heavy loss during the year by issuing dividend. Therefore, it is advisable for the company to hold the issue of dividend for next assessment year. References and bibliography: Evans, C., Hansford, A., Hasseldine, J., Lignier, P., Smulders, S. and Vaillancourt, F., 2014. Small business and tax compliance costs: A cross-country study of managerial benefits and tax concessions.eJournal of Tax Research,12(2), p.453. Lignier, P. and Evans, C., 2012, August. The rise and rise of tax compliance costs for the small business sector in Australia. InAustralian Tax Forum(Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 615-672). Ma, D., 2015. Small business tax compliance burden: what can be done to level the playing field. Scollo, M., Bayly, M. and Wakefield, M., 2015. Availability of illicit tobacco in small retail outlets before and after the implementation of Australian plain packaging legislation.Tobacco control,24(e1), pp.e45-e51.